UK-based Tanzanian writer Abdulrazak Gurnah, whose experience of crossing continents and cultures has fed his novels about the impact of migration on individuals and societies, has won the Nobel Prize for literature.
The Swedish Academy said the award was in recognition of Gurnah’s “uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee”.
Gurnah, who recently retired as a professor of post-colonial literatures at the University of Kent, got the call from the Swedish Academy in the kitchen of his home in south-east England – and initially thought it was a prank.
He said he was “surprised and humbled” by the award.
Gurnah said the themes of migration and displacement that he explored “are things that are with us every day” – even more now than when he came to Britain in the 1960s.
“People are dying, people are being hurt around the world. We must deal with these issues in the most kind way,” he said.
“It’s still sinking in that the Academy has chosen to highlight these themes which are present throughout my work, it’s important to address and speak about them.”
Born in 1948 on the island of Zanzibar, now part of Tanzania, Gurnah moved to Britain as a teenage refugee in 1968, fleeing a repressive regime that persecuted the Arab Muslim community to which he belonged.
He has said he “stumbled into” writing after arriving in England as a way of exploring both the loss and liberation of the emigrant experience.
Gurnah is the author of 10 novels, including Memory Of Departure, Pilgrims Way, Paradise – shortlisted for the Booker Prize in 1994 – By The Sea, Desertion and Afterlives.
Many of his works explore what he has called “one of the stories of our times”: the profound impact of migration both on uprooted people and the places they make their new homes.
Gurnah, whose native language is Swahili but who writes in English, is only the sixth Africa-born author to be awarded the Nobel for literature, which has been dominated by European and North American writers since it was founded in 1901.
Nigerian writer Wole Soyinka, who won the Nobel Literature prize in 1986, welcomed the latest African Nobel laureate as proof that “the arts – and literature in particular – are well and thriving, a sturdy flag waved above depressing actualities” in “a continent in permanent travail”.
Anders Olsson, chairman of the Nobel Committee for literature, called Gurnah “one of the world’s most prominent post-colonial writers”.
He said it was significant that Gurnah’s roots are in Zanzibar, a polyglot place that “was cosmopolitan long before globalisation”.
“His work gives us a vivid and very precise picture of another Africa not so well known for many readers, a coastal area in and around the Indian Ocean marked by slavery and shifting forms of repression under different regimes and colonial powers: Portuguese, Indian, Arab, German and the British,” Mr Olsson said.
He said Gurnah’s characters “find themselves in the gulf between cultures … between the life left behind and the life to come, confronting racism and prejudice, but also compelling themselves to silence the truth or reinventing a biography to avoid conflict with reality”.
Luca Prono said on the British Council website that in Gurnah’s work “identity is a matter of constant change”.
The academic said Gurnah’s characters “unsettle the fixed identities of the people they encounter in the environments to where they migrate”.
News of the award was greeted with excitement in Zanzibar, where many remembered Gurnah and his family – though few had actually read his books.
Gurnah’s books are not required reading in schools there and “are hardly to be found,” said the local education minister Simai Mohammed Said, whose wife is Gurnah’s niece.
But, he added, “a son of Zanzibar has brought so much pride”.
“The reaction is fantastic. Many are happy but many don’t know him, though the young people are proud that he’s Zanzibari,” said Farid Himid, who described himself as a local historian whose father had been a teacher of the Koran to the young Gurnah.
“I have not had the chance to read any of his books, but my family talked about it.”
Gurnah did not often visit Zanzibar, he said, but he has suddenly become the talk of young people in the semiautonomous island region.
“And many elder people are very, very happy. Also me, as a Zanzibari. It’s a new step to make people read books again, since the internet has taken over.”
The prestigious award comes with a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor (£837,000).
The money comes from a bequest left by the prize’s creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, who died in 1895.